Peru (its oficial name is Republic of Peru ), is located on the western region of South America. It is bordered by Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Its total surface area including its islands, is 1,285,216 km². It is the third largest South American country, after Brazil and Argentina. Lima is its capital and the main center of commerce and finance.
Peru is divided into three large natural regions; the Coast, the Andean region and the Jungle. The coastal region is a narrow, arid strech of 2,650 km. Its width ranges from 65 to 160 km. The main industrial cities and most important ports in the country are found in this region. The Andean mountain range is formed by deep valleys, glacial massifs, high plateaus, plains and longitudinal as well as transversal valleys. This region makes up one third of the Peruvian territory. Smaller mountain ranges such as the Cordillera Blanca and Cordillera Huayhuash are found within this area. The slopes on the Eastern Cordillera descend onto a tropical region called the Jungle, which reaches the Brazilian border and forms the Amazon basin. This entire mountainous region, which is filled with vegetation, branches off and form spurs on the Cordillera. The Jungle makes up 60% of the national territory. Here we can find a wide variety of flora and fauna. Many species have not yet been investigated by scientists.